@floatvoid @jacobalbano Yeah that's why I had to take SpineAnimation.cs out of Otter's default repository :( (Today)

@HansenKimberley @theBanov t.co/jE5B0hsj14 (Today)

@TannerGill_ It is tough to take internet tutorial stuff and use it. I really recommend this: t.co/RZ27t0nGiO (Today)

@TannerGill_ Ah I see. I would recommend something like Game Maker Studio at this point. It's a pretty safe environment to learn in. (Today)

@jacobalbano @floatvoid Yeah I worry since it's not officially maintained though that it'll be janky and/or missing features. (Today)

@floatvoid that's what their runtime license prevents you from doing though :I (Today)

@TannerGill_ Hm what do you mean by new material? Not sure if I'm totally understanding the question. (Today)

@floatvoid Yeah that was pretty mean of them. I pretty much had no idea if I wanted to use it based off the trial because of that. (Today)

@ChevyRay yeah man people just don't converse like they used too t.co/nDS2HIqfOF (Today)

@floatvoid Yeah, well the main reason I used Spine is that they had a ready to roll C# API. Spriter's APIs seem to be less far along. (Today)

@HansenKimberley @theBanov I don't know POOP about Unity though! (Today)

@helvetica @aeiowu It really is amazing how this shit is all playing out just as predicted without net neutrality. (Today)

RT @helvetica: Oh great. Great fucking appointment Obama. God damnit. Look, I’m loving the healthcare, but this is a huge blunder. t… (Today)

RT @MOOMANiBE: If you like learning about interesting, lesser-known games, you really should be following @WarpDoor. (Yesterday)

@twobitart @RayMPerry @pietepiet t.co/cQFOUQC6v3 (Yesterday)

RT @rabbit_nabokov: momo 3 is 95% approved to top 100! please vote and RT to spread the word, minna!! t.co/Aw9zjkSpeZ t.co/Xo… (Yesterday)

@legobutts Its a tool to teach american children that eating a sandwich of marshmallows is a perfectly fine meal. #diabetes (Yesterday)

@twobitart nuuuuuudistu beachu~ (Yesterday)

@djcoreynolan <3 (Yesterday)

RT @djcoreynolan: dammit, life would be so excellent if I didn't have some mysterious autoimmune disease continuously sapping my HP (Yesterday)


2014 - 4 - 24 / 2:07 pm / general

Dev Log: Enemy Waves

Dev Log: Enemy Waves

Waves of enemies can be a pretty confusing thing to manage. It sounds simple at first, but the amount of ways that you can manage a group of enemies entering the game seems nearly endless. Usually in games where I have waves of enemies I don't have enough time to think of an elegant solution. I just usually end up with some sort of random enemy generator and over time I add more potential enemy types to the pool. This works most of the time but can often lead to really weird patterns, or nearly impossible to survive scenarios if its not tuned correctly.

For this game I have a little bit more time than a weekend to complete it, so this gives me an opportunity to try and come up with a cool solution. For the current design of the game there exist enemy spawner tiles in the game world. These tiles are present from the very start of the session, although all of them might not be active yet.

Enemies can spawn from any one of the active tiles in the scene. There is always at least one active enemy spawner from the start. An enemy wave consists of a list of enemies, and each one of those list entries also knows what enemy spawner they should come from, and how long they should wait before appearing.

When I have a wave ready to go I can add it into my EncounterManager object which will then execute each wave. An enemy wave can either wait for a certain amount of time before spawning the next one, or it can wait for all of the enemies to be cleared before spawning the next one.

So with all of that, this is what it currently looks like to set up enemy waves:

var wave2 = new EnemyWaveProperties()

EncounterManager.AddAction(new EncounterActionEnemyWave(wave2));

And here's a quick look at what it looks like when the encounter manager is executing an enemy wave action.

public override void Execute() {
foreach(var wave in properties.Waves) {
var spawner = EnemySpawner.GetSpawnerById(wave.SpawnerId);

foreach (var waveEnemy in wave.Enemies) {
if (Spawning) {
if (Timer == waveEnemy.SpawnDelay) {
var enemy = spawner.Spawn(waveEnemy.EnemyType);
SpawnedFirstEnemy = true;

if (Timer >= properties.MaxSpawnDelay) {
Spawning = false;

if (WaitForClear && SpawnedFirstEnemy) {
var enemiesDead = true;
foreach (var enemy in EnemiesSpawned) {
if (enemy.IsInScene) { // Enemy is still alive
enemiesDead = false;
if (enemiesDead) {
Finished = true;
else {
if (Timer >= Time) {
Finished = true;


Nothing too crazy, I think!

No Comments

2014 - 4 - 24 / 12:59 pm / doodle

Doodle Post


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2014 - 4 - 22 / 11:53 am / general

Dev Log: Impact Effects

Dev Log: Impact Effects

Whoops, been kinda neglecting my poor blog for a week. I've been making some progress on my fancy game project though! Just have been forgetting to post about it.


One of the things I tackled over the last couple of days was adding more visual effects for stuff like damage impacts. I want damage to feel over the top juicy at all times so that every impact is really felt by the player. The effect I ended up with for damage impacts is an inverted flash combined with some red colored mixing and additive blending.


Right now I'm using one utility shader that has a bunch of parameters on it for various effects. Check it out:

#version 120
uniform sampler2D texture;
uniform sampler2D noiseTexture;
uniform vec4 overlayColor;
uniform vec4 additiveColor;
uniform vec4 subtractiveColor;
uniform float overlayNoise;
uniform float inverted;
uniform float noiseX;
uniform float noiseY;

void main() {
//get color of this pixel
vec2 pixpos = gl_TexCoord[0].xy;
vec4 pixcol = texture2D(texture, pixpos);

vec4 outcol = abs(inverted-pixcol);
outcol.a = pixcol.a;

//mix in the overlay color
outcol = mix(outcol, overlayColor, overlayColor.a);

//add the additive color
outcol += additiveColor * additiveColor.a;

//subtract the subtractive color (DUH)
outcol -= subtractiveColor;

vec4 noiseColor = texture2D(noiseTexture, mod(pixpos, 1) + vec2(noiseX, noiseY));
outcol = mix(outcol, noiseColor, overlayNoise);

//reset alpha to prevent coloring transparent pixels
outcol.a = pixcol.a;

//output the final color
gl_FragColor = outcol;

I'm still learning the ins and outs of shaders so this probably isn't the best way to do this, but for now it seems to be working out fine.

Along with this shader there is some code in my "Combatant" component to control the shader. The Combatant has a timer that is set whenever it takes damage. This timer is then used to control various parameters on the shader. Every 2 frames the image is inverted using the shader. When the image is inverted there's a red additive color blend applied to the image, and when the image is not inverted there is a normal red color mix applied. The intensity of the color mix is determined by the timer. It starts very intense then fades away.

On top of that another texture is blended with the image. The other texture is just a simple image of generated noise. I'm not totally sure why, but for some reason I like the noise texture along with the rest of the effects. It kind of represents a disruption to the target taking damage, or something poetic like that.

Last but not least the image also shakes around a bit. This is something I first noticed a lot while playing Street Fighter 4. An action freeze along with sprite shaking is an incredibly useful way to convey an intense impact.

Here's the little blurb of code that handles the effects for Combatants

//Handle graphics
foreach (var img in Images) {
var overlay = Util.ScaleClamp(StunEffect, 0, StunEffectMax, 0, 0.5f);
var color = new Color(Color.Black) { A = overlay };
var addColor = new Color(StunColor) { A = overlay };

img.Shader.SetParameter("overlayNoise", overlay * 0.5f);
img.Shader.SetParameter("noiseX", Rand.Float(0, 0.25f));
img.Shader.SetParameter("noiseY", Rand.Float(0, 0.25f));

if (StunEffect > StunEffectMax * 0.25f) {
addColor.A = 0.5f;
color = G.Colors.Dark;
color.A = 0.25f;
img.Shader.SetParameter("inverted", StunEffect % 4 > 1 ? 1 : 0);
else {
img.Shader.SetParameter("inverted", 0);

img.Shader.SetParameter("overlayColor", color);
img.Shader.SetParameter("additiveColor", addColor);

img.Shake = Util.ScaleClamp(StunEffect, 0, StunEffectMax, 0, 30);

Along with the impact effects the Bullet entities have an impact effect to help show damage. If bullets hit something and deal damage they spawn a small red and yellow explosion, and if they don't do damage then the particle is blue and cyan. This is something I saw when I played a lot of Thunder Force III as a kid!

1 Comment

2014 - 4 - 16 / 4:58 pm / general

Dev Log: Quick Lighting Test

Dev Log: Quick Lighting Test

As a quick experiment I wanted to see how Otter would be equipped to handle a simple lighting set up. The basic set up is just a big render texture that is filled with a dark color with a blend mode set to multiply. Then light is rendered to the render texture with a blend mode of additive. The result is a layer of shadow that can have light rendered to it.


The code for this set up right now is pretty straight forward as well. I'm using a black and white image for the light. Just a black rectangle with a white radial gradient in the center.

Here's some sample code to show how this effect is achieved with Otter!

//set up the surface
public Surface SurfaceLighting = new Surface(Game.Instance.Width, Game.Instance.Height, new Color("379")) {
Blend = BlendMode.Multiply

//set up the light
public Image ImageLight = new Image(Assets.ImageLight1) {
Blend = BlendMode.Add

//add the surface to an entity to render it
//this happens in an object's initialization

//render light to the surface
//this happens in a Render() function
ImageLight.Color = Color.White;
Draw.Graphic(ImageLight, Input.MouseX, Input.MouseY);
ImageLight.Color = Color.Red;
Draw.Graphic(ImageLight, Input.MouseX + 500, Input.MouseY);
ImageLight.Color = Color.Blue;
Draw.Graphic(ImageLight, Input.MouseX - 500, Input.MouseY);


2014 - 4 - 11 / 2:05 pm / doodle

Doodle Post


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2014 - 4 - 9 / 4:11 am / general

Dev Log: Pathfinding Fun


Like a cat chasing a laser pointer, I have some basic enemies chasing paths through the skies.

Right now I'm using A* and although I don't really know what is going on that much, I have a system that enemies can use to find paths to their destinations. Normally I wouldn't bother with any sort of path finding, but for this game I want enemies to have to intelligently navigate through obstacles that the player is deploying, so my usual "make up a path finding function that doesn't actually path find but sometimes works out" function wont cut it.

What I have currently is a pretty straight forward set up:
- One PathFinder instance in my Scene. It extends Entity so that it can be updated by the scene automatically.
- Enemies request a path from PathFinder and also register a callback Action with the request.
- The PathFinder instance adds the request to the queue.
- Every update the PathFinder will take the top item of the queue and start the path finding process.
- The actual A* algorithm and calculations are run on a BackgroundThread so that the game can continue while this is going on.
- When the path is done calculating the callback is fired, and the enemy now knows about its path.
- It chases down the nodes that were added to its path.

I made a quick change to the A* algorithm as well under the sage advice of Chevy Ray: I'm using a maximum movement value that will stop the algorithm if the move costs become too high. The result is that the algorithm will return a partial path to the final target instead of the entire path (which could take a long time to calculate in a set of nodes with a lot of open spaces.) So with this in mind the rest of my logic looks like this:

- When the enemy reaches the last node, it checks to see if its close to its intended target.
- If not it requests a new path to its target.
- If it is then it will enter its attack behavior, whatever that is.

So far this seems to be working out pretty well. I have a lot of work to do with how enemies will end up treating their path nodes in regards to their actual movement. Right now they just try to move toward each node, but with a lot of nodes together they end up having some trouble, like that wiggling in the animation above. Something like an averaged out path between a lot of nodes might work better... hmm!




Hi there, my name is Kyle, and I'm a 27 year old kid with adult powers. I'm making video games and living the indie game developer life in Tempe, Arizona. Here you will find my thoughts, games, websites, doodles, and other stuff like that. I worked on Snapshot, Offspring Fling, and a whole bunch of other games. I also created and maintain Otter, a 2d game making framework. If you want to get a hold of me use the form on the bottom of the page, leave a comment, or just tweet at me. I try to post three times a week. Thanks for stoppin' by! You're the coolest.



Do you want to make a Let's Play of one of my games, or a just a video featuring footage of my games? You have my full permission to do so! Even if you are monetizing your videos, you still have my full permission to use any footage from any of my games. Go for it!


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